Boosting Immunity

Veikko J. Pyhtilä, 9.3.2020. Updated 21.4.2020

Cowberries are healthy also for immunity
Cowberries are healthy also for immunity

Develop immune-boosting and tasty recipes with healthy foods, spices, and herbs. Give it a try and test it. They can become a good sales article and a new business. Take Coronavirus Covid-19 as an opportunity not a threat.  I can analyze, model, plan and optimize my nutrition with a program I have developed during 10 years as my hobby: NUTRITION OPTIMIZATION, DESIGN AND RESEARCH

Overview of resistance and immunity

Infectious diseases are affected by the number of microbes in the infection, their multiplication in the target and the individual’s resistance. There are 100 million viruses at the tip of the needle. We cannot completely avoid microbes, some of which are useful as protective agents, some of which cause disease only when they can reproduce in the body when resistance is poor. If you are easily and frequently infected with infectious diseases, your resistance is not the best.

Resistance is influenced by health, stress, nutrition and physical activity. Exercise improves general fitness and fitness is also generally good for resistance.

Exercising lightly or moderately strenuous exercise will increase resistance and protect against upper respiratory tract infections. On the positive side, a regular exercising athlete who does not strive for specific fitness peaks seems to be the best resistance to the flu. In the hours and days after a hard, high-energy exercise, your body is more susceptible to infections. Under intense exertion, the production of stress hormones increases, which can negatively affect the amount and activity of white blood cells and antibodies that are important for immune defense. Flu often strikes as a result of severe work or exam rupture. When a stressful life situation eases and allows you to be tired, resistance is like opening a window to infections. It is especially important for resistance to ensure recovery by sleeping and resting properly and eating healthily. If exercise is done during the cold season, the risk of flu will increase by leap. During the fall and winter, viruses are most circulating and after much effort they are more susceptible. Cold in itself does not cause the flu – but the virus – but cold causes the viruses to multiply better. Hard exercise and too little energy is a challenging combination for resistance.

Eat half a kilogram a day of vegetables, fruits and berries, a variety of cereals and dairy products, meat, fish and good quality fats. The best boosters in the diet are vegetables, fruits and berries, which contain antioxidants to protect the body from the adverse effects of the environment. Antioxidants include, for example, vitamin C and E, selenium and carotenoids, or precursors to vitamin A. The more colorful a portion of vegetables you enjoy, the more vitamins and antioxidants you will get. Good hand and other hygiene help protect against infection. In case of illness, you should try to isolate yourself and coughing should be done in a disposable cloth.

Hand washing with soap is best, a disinfectant hand rinse can destroy the microbes that protect the hands.

Lactic acid bacterial preparations, probiotics, help the stomach to adapt to an abnormal diet and improve resistance also to non-stomach viruses.

The power of micronutrients e.g. against influenza

There are alternatives to toxic antiviral drugs. Many nutrients strengthen and boost the immune system and prevent viruses from multiplying and spreading.

Essential nutrients for optimum cell mediated immunity (leukocytes, macrophages / monocytes , T cells and thymus) are vitamins C, A, D, E, B6, B12, folic acid, iron, zinc, copper and iodine, and antibodies are vitamins A, D, B1, B2, B3, B6, B5, Biotin, Folic Acid, Zinc and Copper. It has been scientifically proven that vitamin C, amino acids (lysine, proline, arginine), N-acetylcysteine and EGCG (extract from green tea) can inhibit the reproduction and spread of viruses in tissues.

Influenza virus can be controlled in several stages of the nutrient metabolism:

  • Directly by influencing viral metabolism and thereby limiting their reproductive capacity and cellular infection and indirectly interfering with cell-to-cell transmission of viruses in tissues.
  • Natural substances have antiviral properties, such as micronutrients and their interactions, without toxic effects on the host cells.
  • Synergies between mixtures of micronutrients are being studied in the control of swine (H1N1) virus infection. It assesses the effect of vitamin C, green tea, certain amino acids, selenium and other nutrients on the ‘ human influenza A’ (H1N1) virus in relation to the viral enzyme neuraminidase required for infectivity and the viral nucleus protein (NP), an indicator of viral proliferation. The biological response to a viral attack is influenced by the secretion of connective tissue-digesting enzymes (metalloproteinases) and the intracellular entry of viruses, which indicate the spread of the viruses.

Spices and herbs with antimicrobial effects

Spices and herbs have been used for thousands of years to add flavor and aroma to foods and to the preservation of foods. Scientific studies have documented the antimicrobial properties and active ingredients of some spices and herbs.

Antimicrobial effect of spices and herbs
Spice / herb Inhibiting effect
Cinnamon, garlic nails, mustard Strong
Spice pepper, bay leaf, cumin, coriander, cumin, oregano, rosemary, sage, thyme or thyme medium-High
Black pepper, allspice, ginger Weak

Studies confirm that both Gram- positive and Gram- negative food-borne bacteria, yeasts, molds can be prevented with garlic, onions, cinnamon, thyme, sage and other spices. The effect of these spices and herbs can be seen among others. in pickles, bread, rice and meat products. The levels of fat, protein, water and salt in foods affect microbial resistance. Thus, there must be more spices in food than in microbial growth media to prevent microbial growth.

Microbial contamination of spices

Spores of Clostridium perfringens and Bacillus cereus have been found in spices and herbs. Less in spices with high antimicrobial activity such as sage, garlic and oregano. However, all spices must be purified and sterilized by the producer / packer by ethylene oxide, irradiation or other approved methods.

Essential oils extracted from spices and herbs are generally recognized to contain antimicrobial compounds.

Antimicrobial compounds for spices and herbs
Spice / Herb Mean,% of essential oils An antimicrobial compound
Garlic 0.3 – 0.5 allicin
Mustard 0.5 – 1.0 Allyl isothiocyanate
Cinnamon 0.5 – 2.0 Cinnamon Aldehyde, Eugenol
Clove 16 – 18 eugenol
Sage 0.7 – 2.0 Thymol , Eugenol
Oregano 0.8 – 0.9 Thymol , Karyakroli
Antimicrobial compounds for spices and herbs

Antiviral herbs

Coronavirus COVID-19

Coronavirus COVID-19 can not be killed by garlic. It is good that all other infections and diseases that can be treated have been treated as well as possible to better withstand the new modified microbes. People with multiple illnesses are more prone to infection and even death from infections. Updated information about Coronavirus COVID-19 See WHO and other reliable sources.

Viruses may transform, and there are dozens of different versions of them and they can behave differently in different people. If a virus has entered a cell, hot water vapor will not kill it if hot steam will not kill whole the cell. But being in warm increases your body’s resistance, when you are becoming ill. For a long time in the sauna, at least the virus will passivate unless it dies (need research on various viruses). Some microbes have the ability, in cold and even in hot weather, to go to a state where they survive and when conditions become favorable, they are activated. Some microbial strains are also stored frozen, while others are constantly growing.

I experienced norovirus-like symptoms, vomiting, nausea. It is then treated with fasting, citrus fruits, tea, plenty of rest, a little salt water, cod liver oil, which provides vitamin A (important for the mucous membrane), E and D, raw onions, raw ginger. In normal condition, the symptoms go away within 1-2 days. After that, walking in the clean, fresh air in nature and healthy food. This happened to me by chance, but I don’t know if it was norovirus, this covid-19 or some other microbe, that was in the food. I am now healthy.

Vaccines, drugs, and treatments are being developed for Covid-19 disease. There have already been experiments and more are coming in the near future, but it will take months to make them available to the public. In many countries, various options are being researched and developed, even nationally, and in addition to international cooperation. Vaccines applied to the nasal mucosa are being studied. Will there be oral vaccines in addition to those given by injection.The viruses themselves are not safe to use consciously, even in small amounts, to achieve immunity. Vaccines use attenuated viruses or parts of viruses. Antibodies produced by viruses from individuals who have already recovered are being studied as therapies for diseases caused by viruses. The information is completed and verified over time.

Other considerations

Medical, nutritional, research, etc. data are hard to tell the absolute truth, they often add or diminish the probability of something and the results depend on a myriad of factors that may not always have been taken into account. Even decades of research are needed to determine the long-term effects. In many cases, we cannot say that effects are due to a single factor, because effects are the sum of the combined effects of many factors. Not all doctors and scientists are fully unanimous, and they really cannot, because it depends on cases and situations that are not known absolutely.

When eating foods containing much normal table sugar, it reduce resistence. There are also essential sugars in fruits and berries, which may work as cell recognition molecules.

Good quality and adequate sleep is very important for resistance. During sleep, important components of the immune system are formed.

Toxins, harmful substances, smoking, alcohol consumption, drugs reduce also resistance. There are methods and diets, which can enhance the elimination of harmful substances from the body. Methods which have been proven by multiple repeated scientific studies and experience can be selected. There are also many over-praised methods which someone are marketing.

Immune system overactivity can be life threatening and allergic reactions can be harmful.

Medicinal herbs and foods, which have substances boosting immunity

Next is list of medicianl herbs, spices, also as foods (with bold) boosting immunity, which I picked from the database, which I have composed for my own use. Here’s the material for researchers, drugs, supplements and nutrition developers. More plants are available from other sources. The list contains only plants, which Finnish names could be found.

WARNING! The normal foods and spices can be used by the average consumer, but poisonous plants can only be used by pharmaceutical companies. Do not try anything unless you know the plant and its side effects eg with other medicines.

Medicinal herbs and foods, which have substances  boosting immunity Scientific name Lääkekasveja ja ruokia, joissa vastustuskykä vahvistavia aineita
ABSCESS ROOT Polemonium reptans Niittysinilatva, Humile
ACACIA, BABUL Acacia nilotica Hartsiakaasia, Arabica
ADAMS NEEDLES, SPANISH BAYONET Yucca filamentosa Hapsijukka
AFRICAN CAPER Capparis tomentosa Afrikkalainen kapris
AFRICAN QUININE, QUININE TREE Rauvolfia caffra Afrikkalainen kiniinipuu
AFRICAN SPURGE Euphorbia resinifera Hartsityräkki
AGRIMONY Agrimonia eupatoria Maarianverijuuri
AIR PLANT, TREE OF LIFE Bryophyllum pinnatum Sulkaitulehti
AJOWAN, BISHOPS WEED Trachyspermum ammi Intiankumina
ALBIZZIA, SIRIS Albizia lebbeck Valkoalbitsia
ALEXANDRIAN SENNA Senna alexandrina Senna
ALFALFA Medicago sativa Sinimailanen, Rehumailanen, Alfalfa, Luserni
ALGA ? Spirulina maxima Spirulina
ALISMA Alisma plantago-aquatica Ratamosarpio
ALKANET, ALKANNA, DYERS ALKANET Alkanna tinctoria Värialkanna
ALLSPICE Pimenta dioica Maustepippuri
ALMOND Prunus dulcis Tarhamanteli
ALMOND OIL Prunus dulcis Tarhamanteli öljy
ALOE Aloe vera Aaloe, Lääkeaaloe
ALOES Aloe vera 2 Aaloet
ALPINE CRANBERRY Vaccinium vitis-idaea Puolukka
ALPINE RAGWORT Senecio nemorensis Lehtovillakko
ALPINE ROSE Rhododendron ferrugineum Ruostealppiruusu
AMERICAN BEECH Fagus grandifolia Amerikanpyökki
AMERICAN BITTERSWEET Celastrus scandens Amerikankelasköynnös
AMERICAN GINSENG, GINSENG Panax quinquefolius Amerikanginseng(juuri)
AMERICAN HELLEBORE Veratrum viride Viherpärskäjuuri
AMERICAN LIVERLEAF Anemone acutiloba Suipposinivuokko
AMERICAN SOLOMONS-SEAL Polygonatum biflorum Lännenkalliokielo
AMERICAN WHITE SPRUCE Picea glauca Valkokuusi
AMMONIAC Dorema ammoniacum Persiankyynelputki
AMUR CORKTREE Phellodendron amurense Amurinkorkkipuu
ANGELICA, WILD PARSNIP Angelica archangelica Väinönputki
ANGOSTURA Angostura trifoliata Rohtogalipea
ANISE Pimpinella anisum Anisruoho
ANNUAL MERCURY Mercurialis annua Rikkasinijuuri
ANSERINA, SILVERWEED Potentilla anserina Ketohanhikki
APPLE Malus domestica Omenapuu, Tarhaomenapuu Omena
APRICOT Prunus armeniaca Aprikoosi
ARAROBA Andira araroba Seeprapuu
ARNICA Arnica montana Etelänarnikki
ARRACH Chenopodium vulvaria Haisusavikka
ARROW-POISON Strophanthus sarmentosus Nuolimyrkky
ARROWROOT Maranta arundinacea Nuolijuuri
ARTICHOKE Cynara cardunculus Latva-artisokka, Artisokka
ASAFETIDA, DEVILS DUNG Ferula assa-foetida Pirunkeltaputki
ASHWAGANDHA Withania somnifera Rohtokoisio
ASPARAGUS Asparagus officinalis Parsa
AUTUMN CROCUS, COLCHICUM, MEADOW-SAFFRON Colchicum autumnale Syysmyrkkylilja
AVENS, BENNETS ROOT Geum urbanum Kyläkellukka
AVOCADO Persea americana Avokado, Hedelmäavokado
AZTEC MARIGOLD Tagetes erecta Iso samettikukka
BABYS BREATH Gypsophila paniculata Morsiusharso
BAEL, BENGAL QUINCE Aegle marmelos Belahedelmä
BAICAL SKULLCAP Scutellaria baicalensis Baikalinvuohennokka
BALLOON FLOWER Platycodon grandiflorus Jalokello
BALMONY, TURTLEHEAD Chelone glabra Valkokonnanyrtti
BALSAM FIR Abies balsamea Palsamipihta
BALSAM OF PERU Myroxylon balsamum Rohtobalsami 1
BALSAM OF TOLU Myroxylon balsamum Rohtobalsami 2
BANANA, PLANTAIN Musa x paradisiaca Banaani, Ruokabanaani
BANEBERRY Actaea spicata Mustakonnanmarja
BARBERRY Berberis vulgaris Ruostehappomarja
BARLEY Hordeum vulgare Ohra
BASIL, SWEET BASIL Ocimum basilicum Basilika, Maustebasilika
BAYLEAF, LAUREL Laurus nobilis Laakeripuu, Laakerinlehti
BAYRUM TREE Pimenta racemosa Bayöljypuu
BEARBERRY Arctostaphylos uva-ursi Sianpuolukka
BEE BALM Monarda didyma Punaväriminttu
BEET Beta vulgaris Punajuuri, Ruokajuurikas
BENZOIN Styrax benzoin Hartsistoraksi
BETEL PALM Areca catechu Betelpalmu
BETEL PEPPER Piper betle Betelpippuri
BETHROOT Trillium erectum Punakolmilehti
BILBERRY Vaccinium myrtillus Mustikka
BIRCH Betula spp. Koivut
BIRTHWORT Aristolochia clematitis Herttapiippuruoho
BISHOPS WEED Ammi visnaga Sirosudenporkkana
BISTORT Polygonum bistorta Isokonnantatar
BITTER CANDYTUFT Iberis amara Katkerosaippo
BITTER MELON, BALSAM PEAR Momordica charantia Karvaskurkku
BITTERSWEET Solanum dulcamara Punakoiso
BITTERWOOD Quassia amara Surinaminkvassia
BLACK ALDER Alnus glutinosa Tervaleppä
BLACK ASH Fraxinus nigra Mustasaarni
BLACK BEAN, GREEN BEAN Phaseolus vulgaris Salkopapu, Leikkopapu, Pensaspapu, Vahapapu
BLACK BRYONY Tamus communis Euroopankiiltoköynnös
BLACK COHOSH Actaea racemosa Tähkäimikki
BLACK CUMIN Nigella sativa Ryytineito
BLACK CURRANT FRUIT Ribes nigrum Mustaherukka 1, Mustaviinimarja
BLACK CURRANT LEAF Ribes nigrum Mustaherukka 2, Mustaviinimarja
BLACK CURRANT SEED OIL Ribes nigrum 2 Mustaherukka 3, Mustaviinimarja
BLACK HAW Viburnum prunifolium Kirsikkaheisi
BLACK HOREHOUND Ballota nigra Valkoporro
BLACK LOCUST Robinia pseudoacacia Valkovaleakaasia
BLACK MULBERRY Morus nigra Mustamulperi, Mulperinmarja
BLACK MUSTARD Brassica nigra Mustasinappi
BLACK NIGHTSHADE Solanum nigrum Mustakoiso
BLACK PEPPER Piper nigrum Pippuri, Mustapippuri
BLACK WALNUT Juglans nigra Mustajalopähkinä
BLACKBERRY Rubus fructicosus Karhunvatukka, Poimuvatukka
BLACKBERRY LILY Belamcanda chinensis Leopardinkukka
BLACKROOT Veronicastrum virginicum Virginiantädyke
BLADDER DOCK Rumex vesicarius Korusuolaheinä
BLADDERWORT Utricularia vulgaris Isovesiherne
BLESSED THISTLE Cnicus benedictus Karvaskaunokki
BLETILLA, HARDY ORCHID Bletilla striata Mikadonkämmen
BLOODROOT Sanguinaria canadensis Lumikki
BLUE CARDINAL FLOWER Lobelia siphilitica Tähkälobelia
BLUE COHOSH Caulophyllum thalictroides Amerikansinisiemen
BLUE FLAG Iris versicolor Kirjokurjenmiekka
BOG BILBERRY, BOG BLUEBERRY Vaccinium uliginosum Juolukka
BOGBEAN Menyanthes trifoliata Raate
BOLDO Peumus boldus Boldopuu
BORAGE Borago officinalis Purasruoho, Kurkkuyrtti, Rohtopurasruoho
BORRACHERO, FLORIPONDIO Brugmansia x candida Enkelinpasuuna
BOSWELLIA Boswellia serrata Olibaani, Salaiolibaani, Frankinsense
BOTTLE GOURD, CALABASH Lagenaria siceraria Pullokurpitsa, Kalebassi
BOWMANS ROOT Gillenia trifoliata Perhoangervo
BOXWOOD Buxus sempervirens Isopuksipuu
BRAHMI Bacopa monnieri Pikkubakopa, Brahmi
BRAZILIAN PEPPERTREE Schinus terebinthifolius Brasilianroseepippuri
BRAZILNUT Bertholletia excelsa Parapähkinäpuu
BREWERS YEAST Saccharomyces cerevisiae Panimohiiva
BRITISH ELECAMPANE Inula britannica Vanukehirvenjuuri
BROCCOLI Brassica oleracea Parsakaali
BROMELAIN Ananas comosus Ananas 2
BROOKLIME Veronica beccabunga Ojatädyke
BROOM CORN Sorghum bicolor Kirjodurra
BROWN KELP Macrocystis pyrifera Päärynäkelppi
BRUSSELS SPROUTS Brassica oleracea Ruusukaali
BUCHU Agathosma betulina Bukko
BUCKWHEAT Fagopyrum esculentum Tattari, Viljatatar
BUGLE Ajuga reptans Rönsyakankaali
BUGLEWEED Lycopus europaeus Rantayrtti, Luhtarantayrtti
BULBOUS BUTTERCUP Ranunculus bulbosus Mäkileinikki
BUNCHBERRY Cornus canadensis Kanadanruohokanukka
BURDOCK Arctium lappa Isotakiainen
BURNING BUSH, DITTANY, GASPLANT Dictamnus albus Mooseksenpalavapensas
BURR MARIGOLD, WATER AGRIMONY Bidens tripartita Tummarusokki
BUTCHERS BROOM Ruscus aculeatus Pikkuruskus, Rautamyrtti
BUTTERBUR Petasites hybridus Etelänruttojuuri
BUTTERNUT Juglans cinerea Amerikanjalopähkinä
CABBAGE Brassica oleracea Keräkaali
CACAO Theobroma cacao Kaakaopuu, Kaakao
CAJEPUT Melaleuca leucadendra Valkokaarnamyrtti
CALAMINT Calamintha nepeta Kivikkokäenminttu
CALAMUS Acorus calamus Kalmojuuri, Rohtokalmojuuri
CALENDULA, MARIGOLD, POT-MARIGOLD Calendula officinalis Kehäkukka, Tarhakehäkukka
CALIFORNIA BAY Umbellularia californica Kalifornianlaakeripuu
CALIFORNIA PEPPERTREE Schinus molle Perunroseepippuri
CALIFORNIA POPPY Eschscholzia californica Kaliforniantuliunikko, Tuliunikko
CAMPHOR Cinnamomum camphora Kamferipuu
CANADA YEW Taxus canadensis Kanadanmarjakuusi
CANADIAN GOLDENROD Solidago canadensis Kultapiisku, Kanadanpiisku, Tarhapiisku
CANCER HERB Acalypha arvensis Ketotädyke, Kenttätädyke
CANDLENUT Aleurites moluccana Hopeatungpuu
CANOLA, OILSEED RAPE Brassica napus Rapsi
CAPE ALOE Aloe ferox Piikkiaaloe
CAPE GOOSEBERRY Physalis peruviana Ananaskirsikka, Karviaiskoiso
CAPER Capparis spinosa Kapris, Pyörökapris
CAPSICUM Capsicum frutescens Paprika, Pensaspaprika, Turkinpippuri, Tabaskopippuri
CARAMBOLA Averrhoa carambola Karambola
CARAWAY Carum carvi Kumina
CARDAMOM Elettaria cardamomum Kardemumma
CARLINE THISTLE Carlina acaulis Hopeakurho
CARNATION Dianthus caryophyllus Tarhaneilikka, Leikkoneilikka
CAROB Ceratonia siliqua Johanneksenleipäpuu
CARROT Daucus carota Porkkana, Villiporkkana
CASCARA SAGRADA Frangula purshiana Sagrada, Rohtopaatsama, Purshin paatsama
CASCARILLA Croton eluteria Karibiankrotoni
CASHEW Anacardium occidentale Munuaispuu
CASSIA Cinnamomum aromaticum Kassiakaneli
CASSIE Acacia farnesiana Tuoksuakaasia
CASTOR Ricinus communis Risiini
CATECHU, BLACK CUTCH Acacia catechu Rohtoakaasia, Katekun
CATGUT Tephrosia virginiana Katkutti
CATNIP Nepeta cataria Aitokissanminttu
CATS CLAW Uncaria tomentosa Kynsiliaani, Kissankynsi
CAULIFLOWER Brassica oleracea Kukkakaali
CEDAR OF LEBANON Cedrus libani Libanoninsetri
CELANDINE Chelidonium majus Keltamo
CELERY Apium graveolens Selleri, Ruotiselleri, Ruokaselleri
CELERY-LEAVED BUTTERCUP Ranunculus sceleratus Konnanleinikki
CENTAURY, EUROPEAN CENTAURY Centaurium erythraea Rohtosappi
CHAFF-FLOWER Achyranthes aspera Tähkähäntä
CHAGA Inonotus obliquus Pakurikääpä, Chaga
CHAMOMILE Matricaria recutita Kamomillasaunio
CHAMPAC Michelia champaca Tuoksusampaka
CHAPARRAL, CREOSOTE BUSH Larrea tridentata Kreosoottipensas
CHASTEBERRY Vitex agnus-castus Siveydenpuu, Munkinpippuri
CHAULMOOGRA Hydnocarpus spp. Leprapuut
CHAYOTE Sechium edule Kajottikurpitsa
CHERRY-LAUREL Prunus laurocerasus Laakerikirsikka
CHICKPEA, GRAM Cicer arietinum Kikkahviherne
CHICKWEED Stellaria media Pihatähtimö, Vesiheinä, Sianmaltsa
CHICORY Cichorium intybus Sikuri
CHINA ROSE Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Kiinanruusu
CHINABERRY Melia azedarach Meelia
CHINESE CLUB MOSS Huperzia serrata Kiinanketunlieko
CHINESE CUCUMBER Trichosanthes kirilowii Kiinalainen kurkku
CHINESE MOTHERWORT Leonurus japonicus Japaninnukula
CHINESE OLIVE Canarium vulgare Kiinalainen oliivi
CHINESE PEONY Paeonia lactiflora Kiinanpioni, Jalopioni
CHINESE PINK Dianthus chinensis Kiinanneilikka
CHIVES Allium schoenoprasum Ruoholaukka, Ruohosipuli
CHOCOLATE-VINE Akebia quinata Akebia
CHOKECHERRY, BITTER BERRY Prunus virginiana Virginiantuomi
CHRISTMAS ROSE, BLACK HELLEBORE Helleborus niger Vaaleajouluruusu
CHRYSANTHEMUM, MUM Chrysanthemum x morifolium Krysanteemi
CILANTRO Eryngium foetidum Korianteri 2
CINNAMON Cinnamomum verum Kaneli
CINNAMON-VINE, CHINESE YAM Dioscorea batatas Kiinanjamssi
CLARY Salvia sclarea Myskisalvia
CLEAVERS Galium aparine Matara, Kierumatara
CLEMATIS Clematis recta Pensaskärhö
CLIMBING POTATO Bowiea volubilis Mukelo
CLOVES Syzygium aromaticum Mausteneilikka, Neilikka
CLUBMOSS Lycopodium clavatum Katinlieko
CLUSTERLEAF Terminalia sericea Hopeaketapani
COCA Erythroxylum coca Kokapensas
COCKSCOMB Celosia argentea Kukonharja
COCONUT Cocos nucifera Kookospalmu
CODONOPSIS Codonopsis spp. Peikonkellot
COFFEE Coffea arabica Kahvi, Arabiankahvi
COFFEE SENNA Senna occidentalis Kahvisenna
COLA Cola spp. Koolapuut
COLEUS Plectranthus barbatus Etiopianliisukka
COLOCYNTH, BITTER APPLE, WILD GOURD Citrullus colocynthis Kolokvintti
COLOMBO Jateorhiza palmata Kalumba
COLTSFOOT Tussilago farfara Leskenlehti
COLUMBINE Aquilegia vulgaris Lehtoakileija
COMFREY Symphytum spp. Ruotsinraunioyrtti
COMMON BUCKTHORN Rhamnus cathartica Orapaatsama
COMMON DAFFODIL Narcissus pseudonarcissus Keltanarsissi
COMMON GROMWELL Lithospermum officinale Rohtorusojuuri
COMMON REED Phragmites australis Järviruoko
CONDOR PLANT, EAGLE VINE Marsdenia cundurango Kondurango
CORAL BEAN Erythrina fusca Loimukorallipuu
CORIANDER Coriandrum sativum Korianteri 1
CORKWOOD TREE, PITURI Duboisia myoporoides Korkkipituri
CORN COCKLE Agrostemma githago Aurankukka
CORN POPPY Papaver rhoeas Silkkiunikko
CORN SILK Zea mays Maissi, Koristemaissi
CORNFLOWER, BACHELORS BUTTON Centaurea cyanus Ruiskaunokki, Ruiskukka
COSTUS, KUTH Saussurea costus Intianlääte
COUCHGRASS, QUACKGRASS Elytrigia repens Juolavehnä
COW PARSNIP Heracleum sphondylium Etelänukonputki
COWSLIP Primula veris Kevätesikko
CRAMPBARK Viburnum opulus Koiranheisi
CRANBERRY Vaccinium macrocarpum Karpalo, Isokarpalo, Pikkukarpalo
CRANESBILL Geranium maculatum Täpläkurjenpolvi
CREAT Andrographis paniculata Rohtokirata
CUBEB Piper cubeba Jaavanpippuri
CUCKOOPINT, ARUM Arum maculatum Täplämunkinhuppu
CUDWEED Gnaphalium uliginosum Savijäkkärä
CULEBRA Brugmansia aurea Profeetanpasuuna
CUMIN Cuminum cyminum Roomankumina, Juustokumina, Jeera
CUP-PLANT Silphium perfoliatum Leveäkompassikukka
CURRYLEAF Murraya koenigii Intianjasmikki
CYCLAMEN Cyclamen europaeum Alppisyklaami
CYPRESS (MEDITERRANEAN) Cupressus sempervirens Välimerensypressi, Aitosypressi
CYPRESS SPURGE Euphorbia cyparissias Tarhatyräkki
DAFFODIL Narcissus tazetta Tasetti, Sarjanarsissi
DANDELION Taraxacum officinale Voikukka
DARNEL Lolium temulentum Myrkkyraiheinä
DATE PALM Phoenix dactylifera Välimerentaateli
DAYLILY Hemerocallis fulva Rusopäivänlilja
DEODAR CEDAR Cedrus deodara Himalajansetri
DEVILS CLAW Harpagophytum procumbens Harpagojuuri, Pirunkoura
DIGITALIS Digitalis purpurea Sormustinkukka, Rohtosormustinkukka
DILL Anethum graveolens Tilli
DIVINING SAGE Salvia divinorum Mazatecinsalvia
DODDER, CLOVER DODDER Cuscuta epithymum Nurmivieras
DOKUDAMI, CHAMALEON PLANT Houttuynia cordata Kameleonttilehti
DONG QUAI Angelica sinensis Kiinanväinönputki, Kiinankarhunputki
DOUGLAS FIR Pseudotsuga menziesii Lännendouglaskuusi
DRAGONS BLOOD PALM Daemonorops draco Rohtotraakkipuu
DROSERA, ROUND-LEAVED SUNDEW Drosera rotundifolia Kihokit, Pyöreälehtikihokki, Pitkälehtikihokki
DU ZHONG, GUTTA-PERCHA TREE Eucommia ulmoides Rohtoparkkipuu
DUCKWEED Lemna minor Pikkulimaska
DUMBCANE Dieffenbachia seguine Täpläkirjovehka
DUSTY-MILLER Senecio cineraria Hopeavillakko
DUTCHMANS BREECHES, TURKEY CORN Dicentra cucullaria Keijunpikkusydän
DWARF BIRCH Betula pumila Amerikanpensaskoivu
DWARF ELDER Sambucus ebulus Ruohoselja
DWARF MALLOW Malva pusilla Kylämalva
DYERS BROOM Genista tinctoria Pensasväriherne
DYERS WOAD Isatis tinctoria Värimorsinko
DYSENTERY BARK Simarouba glauca Lääkekvassia
EASTERN LARCH Larix laricina Kanadanlehtikuusi
ECHINACEA, PURPLE CONEFLOWER Echinacea spp. Punahattu, Auringonhattu, Kaita-, kauno- ja rohtopäivänhattu
EGGPLANT Solanum melongena Munakoiso, Munahedelmä, Aubergiini
EL NENE Solenostemon scutellarioides Isokirjopeippi
ELDERBERRY Sambucus canadensis Kanadanselja
ELECAMPANE Inula helenium Isohirvenjuuri
ELM BARK, EUROPEAN FIELD ELM Ulmus minor Lehtojalava
EMBLIC MYROBALAN Phyllanthus emblica Amblapuu
ENDIVE Cichorium endivia Endiivi
ENGLISH ADDERS TONGUE Ophioglossum vulgatum Isokäärmeenkieli
ENGLISH DAISY, WILD DAISY Bellis perennis Kaunokainen
ENGLISH HOLLY Ilex aquifolium Orjanlaakeri, Euroopanorjanlaakeri
ENGLISH WALNUT Juglans regia Saksanpähkinä, Saksanjalopähkinä
EPHEDRA, MA HUANG Ephedra spp. Efedrat
ERGOT Claviceps purpurea Torajyvät
ERYNGO Eryngium campestre Kenttäpiikkiputki
EUCALYPTUS Eucalyptus globulus Kuumepuu, Eukalyptus
EUROPEAN ASH Fraxinus excelsior Saarni, Lehtosaarni
EUROPEAN CORN MINT Mentha arvensis Rantaminttu, Peltominttu
EUROPEAN ELDER Sambucus nigra Mustaselja
EUROPEAN FIVE-FINGER, CINQUEFOIL Potentilla reptans Suikerohanhikki
EUROPEAN LARCH Larix decidua Euroopanlehtikuusi
EUROPEAN PENNYROYAL Mentha pulegium Puolanminttu
EUROPEAN PEONY Paeonia officinalis Vuoripioni
EUROPEAN WATER HEMLOCK Cicuta virosa Myrkkykeiso
EUROPEAN YEW Taxus baccata Euroopanmarjakuusi
EVENING PRIMROSE Oenothera biennis Helokki, Iltahelokki, Jättihelokki
EYEBRIGHT Euphrasia spp. Silmäruohot
FABA BEAN Vicia faba Härkäpapu
FAIRY FLAX, MOUNTAIN FLAX Linum catharticum Ahopellava
FALSE UNICORN ROOT, DEVILS BIT Chamaelirium luteum Haltianlilja
FENNEL Foeniculum vulgare Salaattifenkoli, Fenkoli, Saksankumina
FENUGREEK Trigonella foenum-graecum Sarviapila, Rohtoapila, Pukinsarviapila
FEVERFEW Tanacetum parthenium Reunuspäivänkakkara, Reunuspietaryrtti
FIELD SCABIOUS Knautia arvensis Ketoruusuruoho
FIG Ficus carica Viikuna, Aitoviikuna
FIGWORT Scrophularia nodosa Syyläjuuri, Tummasyyläjuuri
FIREWEED Epilobium angustifolium Maitohorsma, Horsma
FISH BERRY, LEVANT NUT Anamirta cocculus Intiananamirta
FLANNELWEED, COUNTRY MALLOW Sida cordifolia Herttasiida
FLAX Linum usitatissimum Pellava, Kuitupellava, Peltopellava, Öljypellava
FO-TI Polygonum multiflorum Kiinantatar
FOAM-FLOWER, COOLWORT Tiarella cordifolia Rönsytiarella
FOOLS PARSLEY Aethusa cynapium Hukanputki
FORGET-ME-NOT Myosotis arvensis Peltolemmikki
FORSYTHIA, GOLDEN BELLS Forsythia suspensa Riippaonnenpensas
FOUR OCLOCK Mirabilis jalapa Mökinihmekukka
FRAGRANT SUMAC Rhus aromatica Tuoksusumakki
FRANKINCENSE, OLIBANUM Boswellia sacra Temppeliolibaani
FRASERS FIR, SHE BALSAM Abies fraseri Virginianpihta
FRINGETREE Chionanthus virginicus Virginianpartapuu
FUCUS, BLADDERWRACK Fucus vesiculosus Rakkolevä
FUMITORY Fumaria officinalis Peltoemäkki
GALANGA Kaempferia galanga Guineangalangali
GALBANUM Ferula gummosa Pihkakeltaputki
GARDEN CRESS Lepidium sativum Vihanneskrassi, Tavallinen krassi
GARDENIA, CAPE JASMINE Gardenia jasminoides Kiinangardenia
GARLIC Allium sativum Valkosipuli, Kynsilaukka
GENTIAN Gentiana lutea Keltakatkero
GERMAN IPECAC, WHITE SWALLOWWORT Vincetoxicum hirundinaria Kalliokäärmeenpistonyrtti
GERMAN SARSRILLA Carex arenaria Hietikkosara
GINGER Zingiber officinale Inkivääri
GINGER BUSH Tetradenia riparia Myskiyrtti
GINKGO, MAIDENHAIR TREE Ginkgo biloba Neidonhiuspuu, Ginkgo
GINSENG, ORIENTAL GINSENG Panax ginseng Aito ginseng, Ginseng Kiina  g. , korean g
GLORY-LILY Gloriosa superba Keijunlilja
GLOSSY PRIVET Ligustrum lucidum Kiiltolikusteri
GOATS RUE Galega officinalis Rohtovuohenherne
GOLDEN CHAIN TREE, PEA TREE Laburnum anagyroides Etelänkultasade
GOLDEN DEWDROP Duranta erecta Kultakastepensas
GOLDEN SHOWER, PURGING CASSIA Cassia fistula Kultasadekassia
GOLDENROD Solidago virgaurea Kultapiisku
GOLDENSEAL Hydrastis canadensis Hurmejuuri, Hydrastisjuuri
GOUTWEED Aegopodium podagraria Vuohenputki
GRAINS-OF-PARADISE Aframomum melegueta Meleguettapippuri
GRANADILLA Passiflora quadrangularis Jättipassio
GRAPE Vitis vinifera Viiniköynnös, Aitoviiniköynnös
GRAPE SEED Vitis vinifera Viiniköynnöksen siemen
GRAPEFRUIT Citrus x paradisi Greippi
GRAVEL ROOT Eupatorium purpureum Purppurapunalatva
GREATER GALANGAL Alpinia galanga Isogalangajuuri
GREATER PERIWINKLE Vinca major Isotalvio
GREEK OREGANO Salvia fruticosa Pensassalvia
GREEN ALDER Alnus viridis Pensasleppä
GREEN HELLEBORE Helleborus viridis Viherjouluruusu
GREEN or BLACK TEA Camellia sinensis Teepensas, Vihreä tee, Musta tee
GROUND IVY Glechoma hederacea Maahumala
GROUND PINE, YELLOW BUGLE Ajuga chamaepitys Rohtoakankaali
GROUNDSEL Senecio vulgaris Peltovillakko
GUAIACUM Guaiacum officinale Rohtoguajakkipuu
GUM ARABIC Acacia senegal Kumiakaasia
GUMWEED Grindelia squarrosa Keltarilpiö
GYMNEMA Gymnema sylvestre Oinaansarviliaani
HARTSTONGUE Asplenium scolopendrium Hirvenkieli
HAWTHORN Crataegus spp. Orapihlaja
HEART OF JESUS Caladium bicolor Jeesuksen sydän
HEATHER Calluna vulgaris Kanerva
HEAVENLY BAMBOO Nandina domestica Nandina
HEDGE BINDWEED, GREATER BINDWEED Calystegia sepium Karhunköynnös
HEDGE HYSSOP Gratiola officinalis Rohtokuntio
HEDGE MUSTARD Sisymbrium officinale Rohtopernaruoho
HELIOTROPE Heliotropium europaeum Rikkaheliotrooppi
HEMLOCK Tsuga canadensis Kanadanhemlokki
HEMP AGRIMONY Eupatorium cannabinum Rantapunalatva
HEMP NETTLE Galeopsis sp. Pillikkeet
HENBANE Hyoscyamus niger Hullukaali, Kylähullukaali
HENNA Lawsonia inermis Hennapensas
HERB PARIS Paris quadrifolia Sudenmarja
HERB ROBERT Geranium robertianum Haisukurjenpolvi
HERCULES CLUB Aralia spinosa Lännenaralia
HIMALAYAN FIR Abies spectabilis Intianpihta
HOLLYHOCK Alcea rosea Salkoruusu, Tarhasalkoruusu
HOLY BASIL Ocimum tenuiflorum Pyhäbasilika
HOMALOMENA Homalomena spp. Soikkovehkat
HONEY LOCUST Gleditsia triacanthos Kolmioka
HONEYSUCKLE Lonicera caprifolium Tuoksuköynnöskuusama
HOPS Humulus lupulus Humala
HORSE CHESTNUT Aesculus hippocastanum Balkanin hevoskastanja, Hevoskastanja
HORSEMINT Monarda punctata Pikkuväriminttu
HORSERADISH Armoracia rusticana Piparjuuri
HORSETAIL Equisetum arvense Peltokorte
HORSEWEED, FLEABANE, CANADIAN FLEABANE Conyza canadensis Kanadankoiransilmä
HOTTENTOT FIG Carpobrotus edulis Viikunapäivikki
HOUNDS TONGUE Cynoglossum officinale Koirankieli, Rohtokoirankieli
HOUSELEEK Sempervivum tectorum Kattomehitähti
HU-ZHANG, MEXICAN BAMBOO Fallopia japonica Japanintatar
HUANG QI Astragalus membranaceus Rohtokurjenherne
HYDRANGEA Hydrangea arborescens Pallohortensia
HYSSOP Hyssopus officinalis Iisoppi
IBOGA Tabernanthe iboga Ibogapensas
ICELAND MOSS Cetraria islandica Islanninjäkälä, Isohirvenjäkälä
IGNATIUS BEAN Strychnos ignatii Malesianstrykniinipähkinä
INDIAN ACALYPHA Acalypha indica Kissanhäntä
INDIAN ALMOND Terminalia catappa Manteliketapani
INDIAN ELECAMPANE Inula racemosa Terttuhirvenjuuri
INDIAN MADDER Rubia cordifolia Rohtokrappi
INDIAN STRAWBERRY Duchesnea indica Intianhanhikki
INDIAN tai HIMALAYAN RHUBARB Rheum australe Intian tai Himalajan raparperi
INDIGO Indigofera tinctoria Indigokasvi
IVY Hedera helix Varjomuratti
JACK PINE Pinus banksiana Banksinmänty
JAPANESE HONEYSUCKLE Lonicera japonica Japaninköynnöskuusama
JASMINE, COMMON JASMINE Jasminum officinale Rohtojasmiini
JATAMANSI, INDIAN NARD Nardostachys grandiflora Intiannardusjuuri
JAVA PLUM Syzygium cumini Jaavanjambolaani
JAVA TEA Orthosiphon aristatus Jaavan tee
JEQUIRITY Abrus precatorius Paternosterpapu
JERUSALEM ARTICHOKE Helianthus tuberosus Maa-artisokka, Mukula-artisokka
JEWELWEED Impatiens capensis Lännenpalsami
JIAOGULAN Gynostemma pentaphyllum Rypälekurkku
JIMSONWEED Datura stramonium Okahulluruoho
JOJOBA Simmondsia chinensis Vuohenpuksio
JUJUBE, COMMON JUJUBE, CHINESE DATE Ziziphus jujuba Kiinanjujuba
JUNIPER Juniperus communis Kataja
JUREMA Mimosa hostilis Rusomimosa
JUTE Corchorus olitorius Juuttia
KALE Brassica oleracea Lehtikaali
KAPOK Ceiba pentandra Amazoninkapokkipuu
KAVA Piper methysticum Kavapippuri
KELP Nereocystis luetkeana Jättikelppi
KHAKI BUSH, WILD MARIGOLD Tagetes minuta Haisusamettikukka
KHAT Catha edulis Katpensas
KIDNEY VETCH Anthyllis vulneraria Masmalo
KIWI Actinidia deliciosa Kiiviköynnös
KOLA Cola acuminata Koolapuu
KONJAC Amorphophallus konjac Mukulapökkövehka
KOREAN MINT Agastache rugosa Koreaniiso
KOUSSO Hagenia abyssinica Kosso
KRATUM Mitragyna speciosa Siaminkratomi
KUDZU Pueraria montana Kudzupapu
KWASHI Pancratium spp. Merinarsissit
LABRADOR TEA Ledum groenlandicum Lännenpursu
LADY FERN Athyrium filix-femina Soreahiirenporras
LADYS BEDSTRAW Galium verum Keltamatara
LADYS MANTLE Alchemilla vulgaris Poimulehti, Kasteheinä, Teeheinä
LADYS SLIPPER Cypripedium spp. Tikankontit
LAMBKILL Kalmia angustifolia Kapealehtikalmia
LANGSAT, DUKU Lansium domesticum Langsat
LARKSPUR, FORKING LARKSPUR Consolida regalis Rikkakukonkannus
LAVENDER Lavandula spp. Laventeli, Tähkälaventeli
LAVENDER-COTTON Santolina chamaecyparissus Hopeayrtti, Nyhähopeayrtti
LEMON Citrus limon Sitruuna
LEMON BUSH Lippia javanica Sitruunapensas
LEMON VERBENA Aloysia citrodora Sitruunaverbena
LEMONBALM Melissa officinalis Sitruunamelissa
LEMONGRASS Cymbopogon citratus Intiansitrusheinä
LESSER GALANGAL Alpinia officinarum Pikkugalangajuuri
LESSER PERIWINKLE Vinca minor Pikkutalvio
LEVANT COTTON Gossypium herbaceum Intianpuuvilla
LEVANT WORMSEED Artemisia cina Matomaruna
LICORICE Glycyrrhiza glabra Lakritsikasvi
LIFE-ROOT, SQUAW WEED Senecio aureus Rohtovillakko
LILY OF THE VALLEY Convallaria majalis Kielo
LIMA BEAN Phaseolus lunatus Limanpapu, Limapapu
LIME Citrus aurantiifolia Limetti
LINDEN Tilia spp. Lehmus, Metsälehmus
LOBELIA Lobelia inflata Rohtolobelia
LONG PEPPER Piper longum Pitkäpippuri
LONGLEAF PINE Pinus palustris Pitkäneulasmänty
LOOSESTRIFE Lysimachia vulgaris Ranta-alpi
LOTUS Nelumbo nucifera Intianlootus
LOVAGE Levisticum officinale Lipstikka, Liperi
LUCKY NUT, YELLOW OLEANDER Thevetia peruviana Keltaoleanteri
LUNGWORT Pulmonaria officinalis Rohtoimikkä
MACA, PERUVIAN GINSENG Lepidium meyenii Andienkrassi
MADDER, DYERS MADDER Rubia tinctorum Värikrappi
MAGNOLIA VINE Schisandra chinensis Sitruunaköynnös, Palsamiköynnös
MAIDENHAIR FERN Adiantum capillus-veneris Neidonadiantumi
MALABAR NUT Justicia adhatoda Valkopantterinkita
MALABAR TAMARIND Garcinia cambogia Rohtomangostani
MALE FERN Dryopteris filix-mas Kivikkoalvejuuri
MALLOW, HIGH MALLOW Malva sylvestris Kiiltomalva
MANCHINEEL Hippomane mancinella Tuonenomena
MANDRAKE Mandragora officinarum Rohtomandrake
MANNA Fraxinus ornus Mannasaarni
MARIJUANA Cannabis sativa Hamppu, Marijuana
MARITIME PINE Pinus pinaster Rannikkomänty
MARSH-MARIGOLD Caltha palustris Rentukka
MARSH BLAZING STAR Liatris spicata Punatähkä, Noropunatähkä
MARSH TEA Ledum palustre Suopursu
MARSHMALLOW Althaea officinalis Rohtosalkoruusu, Rohtosamettihaapa, Alteanjuuri, Lääkemalva
MARTAGON Lilium martagon Varjolija
MARULA Sclerocarya birrea Marulapuu
MARUPA, BITTER WOOD Simarouba amara Rohtokvassia
MASTERWORT Peucedanum ostruthium Rohtosuoputki
MASTIC Pistacia lentiscus Mastiksipistaasi
MATÉ Ilex paraguariensis Matee
MATICO Piper aduncum Kaitapippuri
MATRIMONY VINE Lycium barbarum Pukinpensas, Aitapukinpensas
MAYAPPLE, AMERICAN MANDRAKE Podophyllum peltatum Amerikanjalkalehti
MEADOWSWEET Filipendula ulmaria Mesiangervo
MELON, CANTALOUPE Cucumis melo Vesimeloni, Arbuusi, Meloni
MESCAL Agave sisalana Sisalagaave
MESCAL BEAN Sophora secundiflora Teksasinpagodipuu
MESQUITE Prosopis juliflora Mezquitepensas
METEL, HINDU DATURA Datura metel Tuoksuhulluruoho
MEXICAN CALEA, DOGS GRASS, BITTER GRASS Calea zacatechichi Meksikonharhio
MEZEREON Daphne mezereum Näsiä, Lehtonäsiä
MILK THISTLE Silybum marianum Maarianohdake
MILKWEED Asclepias syriaca Mesisilkkiyrtti
MIMOSA Albizia julibrissin Silkkialbitsia
MISSOURI SNAKEROOT, WILD QUININE Parthenium integrifolium Preeriahelmikki
MISTLETOE Viscum album Misteli
MOLE PLANT Euphorbia lathyris Ristityräkki
MONEYWORT Lysimachia nummularia Suikeroalpi
MONKSHOOD Aconitum napellus Aitoukonhattu
MOONSEED Menispermum canadense Kanadankilpikierto
MORNING GLORY Ipomoea hederacea Liuskaelämänlanka
MOTHER OF THYME Thymus serpyllum Kangasajuruoho
MOTHERWORT Leonurus cardiaca Rohtonukula
MOUNTAIN-AVENS Dryas octopetala Lapinvuokko, Tunturilapinvuokko
MOUNTAIN ASH Sorbus americana Amerikanpihlaja
MOUNTAIN LAUREL Kalmia latifolia Leveälehtikalmia
MOUSE EAR HAWKWEED Hieracium pilosella Huopakeltano
MUGWORT Artemisia vulgaris Pujo, Maruna
MULLEIN Verbascum spp. Tulikukka, Ukontulikukka, Kynttiläheinä
MUSK-MALLOW, MUSK OKRA Abelmoschus moschatus Myskin okra
MUSTARD (GRAS M.) Brassica juncea Sareptansinappi
MYRRH Commiphora myrrha Mirhami
MYRTLE Myrtus communis Myrtti
NASTURTIUM Tropaeolum majus Köynnöskranssi, Isoköynnöskrassi
NEEM Azadirachta indica Neempuu
NETTLE Urtica dioica Nokkonen, Isonokkonen, Viholainen
NIGHT-BLOOMING CEREUS Selenicereus grandiflorus Yönkuningatar
NONI, INDIAN MULBERRY Morinda citrifolia Noni
NORTHERN MAIDENHAIR, POINTER WEED Adiantum pedatum Trha-adiantumi
NUTMEG Myristica fragrans Muskotti
NUX VOMICA Strychnos nux-vomica Ketunstrykniinipähkinä
OAK Quercus spp. Tammi, Metsätammi
OAKGALL Quercus infectoria Rieputammi
OATS Avena sativa Kaura, Peltokaura
OLIVE LEAF Olea europaea Oliivipuu 1, Öljypuu
OLIVE OIL Olea europaea Oliivipuu 2, Öljypuu
OLOLIUQUI, MOONFLOWER Ipomoea violacea Lumoelämänlanka
ONION Allium cepa Sipuli, Keltasipuli, Vihersipuli, Hillosipuli
OPIUM ANTIDOTE Combretum micranthum Oopiumin vastalääke
OPIUM POPPY Papaver somniferum Unikko, Kesäunikko, Oopiumunikko
ORANGE Citrus sinensis Appelsiini
ORANGE PEEL Citrus sinensis Appelsiinin kuori
ORDEAL BEAN, CALABAR BEAN Physostigma venenosum Kalabarpapu
OREGANO Origanum vulgare Mäkimeirami, Oregano, Espanjanhumala, Metsämeirami
OREGON GRAPE Mahonia aquifolium Mahonia
ORIENTAL ARBORVITAE Platycladus orientalis Idäntuija
ORRIS Iris spp. Kurjenmiekat
OXEYE DAISY Leucanthemum vulgare Päivänkakkara, Ahopäivänkakkara
PACIFIC YEW Taxus brevifolia Lännenmarjakuusi
PAGODA TREE Styphnolobium japonicum Japaninpagodipuu
PAKISTANI EPHEDRA Ephedra gerardiana Koruefedra
PANSY Viola tricolor Keto-orvokki
PAPAYA Carica papaya Papaija, Melonipuu
PAPER MULBERRY Broussonetia papyrifera Paperimulperipuu
PAREIRA, CURARE Chondrodendron tomentosum Pareirajuuri
PARSLEY Petroselinum crispum Persilja
PARSLEY PIERT Aphanes arvensis Peltopoimukki
PARSNIP Pastinaca sativa Palsternakka
PASSIONFLOWER Passiflora incarnata Rohtopassio, Kärsimyskukka
PATCHOULI Pogostemon cablin Patsuli
PAU DARCO Tabebuia spp. Soihtupuut
PAWPAW Asimina triloba Papavi
PEANUT Arachis hypogaea Maapähkinä
PEAR Pyrus communis Päärynä, Tarhapäärynä
PEARLY EVERLASTING Anaphalis margaritacea Helminukkajäkkärä
PEEGEE Hydrangea paniculata Japaninhortensia
PELLITORY-OF-THE-WALL Parietaria officinalis Pystymuuriyrtti
PEPPERMINT Mentha x piperita Piparminttu
PETROLEUM PLANT Euphorbia tirucalli Mehipuutyräkki
PEYOTE Lophophora williamsii Meskaliinikaktus, Myrkkykaktus
PHEASANTS EYE Adonis vernalis Kevätruusuleinikki
PICRORHIZA Picrorhiza kurrooa Maksajuuri
PIGEONPEA Cajanus cajan Kyyhkynherne
PILEWORT Ranunculus ficaria Mukulaleinikki
PIMPINELLA Pimpinella saxifraga Pukinjuuri, Ahopukinjuuri
PINEAPPLE Ananas comosus Ananas 1
PINKROOT Spigelia marilandica Hurmepuuntojuuri
PIPSISSEWA Chimaphila spp. Sarjatalvikit
PITCHER PLANT Sarracenia purpurea Purppuratötterö
PLANTAIN Plantago major Piharatamo, Ratamo, Haavalehti, Rautalehti, Rakkolehti
PLEURISY ROOT Asclepias tuberosa Karvasilkkiyrtti
PLUM, EUROPEAN PLUM Prunus domestica Luumu
PLUMBAGO Plumbago Zeylanica Vitilyijykukka
POINSETTIA Euphorbia pulcherrima Joulutähti
POISON HEMLOCK Conium maculatum Myrkkykatko
POISON IVY Toxicodendron pubescens Myrkkysumakki, Amerikanmyrkkysumakki
POKE ROOT Phytolacca americana Lännenkermesmarja
POMEGRANATE Punica granatum Granaattiomena
PONTIAN RHODODENDRON Rhododendron ponticum Turkinalppiruusu
POPLAR Populus sp. Haapa, Haavat, Poppelit
POTATO Solanum tuberosum Peruna
PREMORSE, DEVILS BIT Succisa pratensis Purtojuuri
PRICKLY ASH Zanthoxylum spp. Limopuut
PRICKLY PEAR Opuntia ficus-indica Viikunaopuntia
PRICKLY POPPY Argemone mexicana Keltapiikkiunikko
PRINCES FEATHER, AMARANTH Amaranthus hypochondriacus Meksikonrevonhäntä
PRIVET Ligustrum vulgare Aitalikusteri
PROSTRATE KNOTWEED Polygonum aviculare Pihatatar
PSYLLIUM, BLONDE ISPAGHULA Plantago ovata Psyllium, Rohtoratamo, Jänönratamo, Haararatamo
PUFFBALL Lycoperdon spp. Kuukunen
PULSATILLA, PASQUEFLOWER Anemone pulsatilla Ketokylmänkukka
PUMPKIN Cucurbita pepo Kurpitsa, Koristekurpitsa, Kesäkurpitsa, Talvikurpitsa
PUMPKIN SEED Cucurbita pepo Kurpitsan siemen
PUNCTURE VINE Tribulus terrestris Okarennokki, Tribulus
PURPLE BEEBALM Monarda fistulosa Preeriaväriminttu
PURPLE LOOSESTRIFE Lythrum salicaria Rantakukka, Pohjanrantakukka
PURSLANE Portulaca oleracea Vihannesportulakka
PUSSY WILLOW Salix discolor Tuhkapaju
PUSSYTOES, CATS FOOT Antennaria dioica Kissankäpälä
PYGEUM Prunus africana Afrikankirsikka
PYRETHRUM Tanacetum cinerariifolium Dalmatianpietaryrtti
QUASSIA Picrasma excelsa Jamaikankvassia
QUEEN ANNES LACE Daucus carota subsp. carota Rikkaporkkana
QUINCE Cydonia oblonga Kvitteni
RADISH Raphanus sativus Retikka, Ruokaretikka
RAMSON, BEAR GARLIC Allium ursinum Karhunlaukka
RASPBERRY Rubus idaeus Vadelma, Vattu
RAUWOLFIA, SNAKEWOOD Rauvolfia serpentina Intiankäärmepuu
RED BRYONY Bryonia dioica Punakoiranköynnös
RED BUSH TEA Aspalathus sp. Roibos(pensaat)
RED CEDAR Juniperus virginiana Kynäkataja
RED CLOVER Trifolium pratense Puna-apila
RED CURRANT Ribes rubrum Lännenpunaherukka
RED MAPLE Acer rubrum Punavaahtera
RED MULBERRY Morus rubra Punamulperi
RED ROOT SAGE Salvia miltiorrhiza Kiinansalvia
RED SANDALWOOD Pterocarpus santalinus Intianveripihkapuu
RED VALERIAN Centranthus ruber Punavirma
REDHEAD Hamelia patens Kolibrintulipensas
REHMANNIA, CHINESE FOXGLOVE Rehmannia glutinosa Pikkusoilio
RESTHARROW Ononis spinosa Ruusuorakko
RHATANY Krameria lappacea Punaratania
RHUBARB, DA HUANG Rheum palmatum Raparperi, Koristeraparperi
RIBWORT Plantago lanceolata Heinäratamo
RICE Oryza sativa Riisi
ROCKET LARKSPUR Consolida ajacis Tarhakukonkannus
ROMAN CHAMOMILE Chamaemelum nobile Jalosauramo
ROSE BAY, ROSE LAUREL Nerium oleander Oleanteri
ROSE HIPS, DOGROSE Rosa canina Koiranruusu
ROSE PETALS Rosa centifolia Kartanoruusut
ROSE ROOT? Rhodiola rosea Ruusujuuri, Pohjanruusujuuri
ROSELLE Hibiscus sabdariffa Teehibiskus
ROSEMARY Rosmarinus officinalis Rosmariini
ROSINWEED Silphium laciniatum Liuskakompassikukka
ROSY PERIWINKLE Catharanthus roseus Katara, Rosea
ROUND-LEAFED WINTERGREEN Pyrola rotundifolia Isotalvikki
ROUND CARDAMOM Amomum compactum Jaavankardemumma
ROWAN BERRY Sorbus aucuparia Pihlaja, Kotipihlaja
RUBBER VINE Cryptostegia grandiflora Isopurppuraköynnös
RUE Ruta graveolens Tuoksuruuta
RUPTUREWORT Herniaria glabra Ketotyräruoho
RYE Secale cereale Ruis
SABADILLA Schoenocaulon officinale Meksikonsabadilla
SACRED VIROLA Virola elongata Nuuskavirola
SAFFLOWER Carthamus tinctorius Saflori
SAFFRON Crocus sativus Maustesahrami, Sahrami
SAGE Salvia officinalis Salvia, Ryytisalvia, Rohtosalvia, Myskisalvia
SAGO CYCAS Cycas revoluta Japaninkruunukävykki
SALAD BURNET, GREAT BURNET Sanguisorba officinalis Punaluppio
SALEP Orchis spp. Pallerokämmekät
SAMPHIRE Crithmum maritimum Merifenkoli
SAN PEDRO Echinopsis pachanoi Kynttiläkaktus
SAND SPURREY Spergularia rubra Punasolmukki
SANDALWOOD Santalum album Santelipuu
SANDARAC Tetraclinis articulata Atlassypressi
SANDBOX TREE Hura crepitans Lauttahurapuu
SANDY EVERLASTING Helichrysum arenarium Hietaolkikukka
SANICLE Sanicula europaea Haavayrtti
SASSAFRAS Sassafras albidum Amerikansassafras
SAUSAGE TREE Kigelia africana Makkarapuu
SAW PALMETTO Serenoa repens Sahapalmu
SAVIN Juniperus sabina Rohtokataja
SAVORY Satureja sp. Kynteli, Talvikynteli
SCARLET ELDER Sambucus racemosa Terttuselja
SCARLET PIMPERNEL Anagallis arvensis Peltopunka
SCARLET POPPY Papaver bracteatum Kaukasianunikko
SCOPOLIA Scopolia carniolica Skopolia
SCOTCH BROOM Cytisus scoparius Jänönvihma
SCOTCH PINE Pinus sylvestris Mänty, Metsämänty
SCOTCH THISTLE Onopordum acanthium Okakruunuohdake
SCURVY-GRASS, SPOONWORT Cochlearia officinalis Rohtokuirimo
SEA BUCKTHORN Hippophae rhamnoides Tyrni
SEA ISLAND COTTON, UPLAND COTTON Gossypium barbadense Länsi-intianpuuvilla
SELF-HEAL, HEAL ALL Prunella vulgaris Niittyhumala, Ahoniittyhumala
SENEGA ROOT Polygala senega Rohtolinnunruoho, Senega
SENSITIVE PLANT Mimosa pudica Tuntokasvi, Mimosa
SERVICETREE Sorbus domestica Välimerenpihlaja
SESAME Sesamum indicum Seesami
SHATAVARI, SHATAMULI Asparagus racemosus Terttuparsa
SHAVEGRASS, GREAT SCOURING RUSH Equisetum hyemale Kangaskorte
SHEEP SORREL Rumex acetosella Ahosuolaheinä
SHEPHERDS PURSE Capsella bursa-pastoris Lutukka
SHITAKE Lentinus edodes Siitake
SIAM BENZOIN Styrax tonkinensis Tonkininstoraksi
SIBERIAN GINSENG Eleutherococcus senticosus Venäjänjuuri, Siperian ginseng
SIBERIAN TEA Bergenia crassifolia Soikkovuorenkilpi
SICKLEPOD Senna tora Sirppisenna
SILVER VINE Actinidia polygama Mantsurianlaikkuköynnös
SKIRRET Sium sisarum Sokerijuuri
SKULLCAP Scutellaria lateriflora Rohtovuohennokka
SKUNK CABBAGE Symplocarpus foetidus Suohaisuhuppu
SLIPPERY ELM Ulmus rubra Punajalava
SLOE, BLACKTHORN Prunus spinosa Oratuomi
SMARTWEED Polygonum hydropiper Katkeratatar
SMOOTH LOOFAH, LUFFA Luffa aegyptiaca Pesusienikurkku
SMOOTH SUMAC Rhus glabra Silosumakki
SNAKE PLANT Turbina corymbosa Atsteekkilumokierto
SNAKEROOT Aristolochia serpentaria Virginianpiippuköynnös
SNEEZEWORT Achillea ptarmica Ojakärsämö
SNOWDROP Galanthus nivalis Lumikello, Puistolumikello
SOAPTREE Quillaja saponaria Suopapuu
SOAPWORT Saponaria officinalis Rohtosuopayrtti
SODOMS MILKWEED Calotropis procera Sodomanmadari
SOLOMONS-SEAL Polygonatum multiflorum Lehtokielo
SORREL Rumex acetosa Niittysuolaheinä
SOUL VINE, AYAHUASCA Banisteriopsis caapi Amazoninajahuaskaliaani
SOUR CHERRY Prunus cerasus Hapankirsikka
SOUTHERNWOOD Artemisia abrotanum Aaprottimaruna
SOYBEAN Glycine max Soijapapu
SPANISH CHESTNUT Castanea sativa Jalokastanja
SPANISH NEEDLES Bidens pilosa Karvarusokki
SPANISH PELLITORY Anacyclus pyrethrum Marokonraimikki
SPEARMINT Mentha spicata Viherminttu
SPEEDWELL Veronica officinalis Rohtotädyke
SPICEBUSH Lindera benzoin Ryytilaakeri
SPIKENARD Aralia racemosa Terttuaralia
SPINACH Spinacia oleracea Pinaatti
SPRING SNOWFLAKE Leucojum vernum Kevätlumipisara
SQUILL, SEA ONION Urginea maritima Merisipuli, Jättimerisipuli
SQUIRREL-CORN Dicentra canadensis Hopeapikkusydän
ST. JOHNS-WORT Hypericum perforatum Mäkikuisma
STAR ANISE Illicium verum Tähtianis, Rusotähtianis
STAR GRASS Hypoxis sp. Iirikki, Baurii
STAR OF BETHLEHEM Ornithogalum umbellatum Sarjatähdikki
STAVESACRE Delphinium staphisagria Karvasritarinkannus
STONECROP Sedum acre Keltamaksaruoho
STORAX Liquidambar Ambrapuut
STRAWBERRY Fragaria vesca Mansikka, Ahomansikka, metsämansikka
STRAWBERRY TREE Arbutus unedo Lännenmansikkapuu
SUMA Hebanthe eriantha Brasiliansumayrtti
SUMMER CYPRESS Bassia scoparia Kesäsuolukka
SUMMER SNOWFLAKE Leucojum aestivum Kesälumipisara, Suvikello
SUNDEW Drosera ramentacea Kihokki
SUNFLOWER Helianthus annuus Auringonkukka, Isoauringonkukka
SURINAM-CHERRY Eugenia uniflora Surinaminkirsikka
SWAMP MILKWEED Asclepias incarnata Purppurasilkkiyrtti
SWEET-SCENTED MARIGOLD Tagetes lucida Tuoksusamettikukka
SWEET ANNIE, ANNUAL WORMWOOD Artemisia annua Kesämaruna
SWEET BIRCH Betula lenta Sokerikoivu
SWEET CICELY Myrrhis odorata Saksankirveli
SWEET FERN Comptonia peregrina Tuoksumyrtti
SWEET GALE Myrica gale Suomyrtti
SWEET GRASS, VANILLA GRASS Hierochloe odorata Tuoksumaarianheinä
SWEET MARJORAM Origanum majorana Maustemeirami, Meirami
SWEET POTATO Ipomoea batatas Bataatti
SWEET VERNAL GRASS Anthoxanthum odoratum Tuoksusimake
SWEET VIOLET Viola odorata Tuoksuorvokki
SYRIAN CHRIST-THORN Ziziphus spina-christi Kruunujujuba
SYRIAN RUE Peganum harmala Pilviharmikki
TALL BUTTERCUP Ranunculus acris Niittyleinikki
TAMARIND Tamarindus indica Tamarindipuu
TANGERINE Citrus reticulata Mandariini, Klementiini, Satsuma
TANSY Tanacetum vulgare Pietaryrtti, Rohtopietaryrtti
TANSY RAGWORT Senecio jacobaea Jaakonvillakko
TAPIOCA Manihot esculenta Maniokki
TARRAGON Artemisia dracunculus Rakuuna
TEATREE Melaleuca alternifolia Teepuu, Paperikaarnamyrtti
TEAWEED Sida rhombifolia Ruutusiida
THUJA, WHITE CEDAR Thuja occidentalis Kanadantuija
THYME Thymus vulgaris Timjami, Tarha-ajuruoho
TIGER LILY Lilium lancifolium Tiikerilija
TOBACCO Nicotiana tabacum Virginiantupakka
TOMATO Lycopersicon esculentum Tomaatti
TONKA BEAN Dipteryx odorata Tuoksutonkapuu
TORMENTIL, CINQUEFOIL Potentilla erecta Rätvänä
TRAGACANTH Astragalus gummifer Trakanttikurjenherne
TRAVELERS JOY Clematis vitalba Saksankärhö
TREE-OF-HEAVEN, STINKTREE Ailanthus altissima Haisujumaltenpuu, Ailante
TREE PEONY Paeonia suffruticosa Pensaspioni
TULIPTREE Liriodendron tulipifera Lännentulppaanipuu
TUPA Lobelia tupa Liekkilobelia
TURMERIC Curcuma longa Kurkuma, Maustekurkuma
UPLAND COTTON Gossypium hirsutum Teksasinpuuvilla
USNEA Usnea spp. Naava
UZARA Xysmalobium undulatum Uzarajuuri
WAFER ASH Ptelea trifoliata Ptelea
VALERIAN Valeriana officinalis Rohtovirmajuuri, Valeriaana
WALL GERMANDER Teucrium chamaedrys Tammiteurikka
WALLFLOWER Erysimum cheiri Kultalakka
VANILLA Vanilla planifolia Vanilja
WASABI, JAPANESE HORSERADISH Wasabia japonica Maustekrassi
WATER AVENS Geum rivale Ojakellukka
WATER DOCK Rumex aquaticus Vesihierakka
WATER DROPWORT Oenanthe crocata Viuhkapahaputki
WATER FENNEL Oenanthe aquatica Liejupahaputki
WATER GERMANDER Teucrium scordium Rohtoteurikka
WATER MINT Mentha aquatica Vesiminttu
WATERCRESS Nasturtium officinale Isovesikrassi
WATERLILY Nymphaea odorata Lumme
WATERMELON Citrullus lanatus Vesimeloni
VENUS FLYTRAP Dionaea muscipula Kärpäsloukku
VERVAIN Verbena officinalis Rohtoverbena, Rohtorautayrtti
VETIVER, KHUS KHUS Vetiveria zizanioides Vetiveriaheinä
WHEAT Triticum aestivum Vehnä, Leipävehnä
WHITE BIRCH Betula papyrifera Paperikoivu
WHITE BRYONY Bryonia alba Mustakoiranköynnös
WHITE COHOSH, BANEBERRY Actaea pachypoda Valkokonnanmarja
WHITE DEADNETTLE Lamium album Valkopeippi, Pillikkeet, Valkopillikkeet
WHITE HELLEBORE Veratrum album Valkopärskäjuuri
WHITE HOREHOUND Marrubium vulgare Hurtanminttu, Valkohurtanminttu
WHITE LILY, MADONNA LILY Lilium candidum Madonnanlilja
WHITE MULBERRY Morus alba Valkomulperi
WHITE MUSTARD Sinapis alba Keltasinappi
WHITE PINE Pinus strobus Strobusmänty
WHITE SPRUCE, FIR Picea abies Kuusi, Metsäkuusi
WHITE WILLOW Salix alba Valkopaju, Valkosalava
WILD CHERRY Prunus serotina Kiiltotuomi
WILD DAGGA Leonotis leonurus Tulileijonankorva
WILD INDIGO Baptisia tinctoria Keltaetelänherne
WILD LETTUCE Lactuca virosa Rohtosalaatti
WILD MINT, BIBLICAL MINT Mentha longifolia Harmaaminttu
WILD RADISH Raphanus raphanistrum Peltoretikka
WILD SAGE Lantana camara Kirjotulikruunu
WILD SERVICETREE Sorbus torminalis Etelänpihlaja
WILD STRAWBERRY Fragaria virginiana Virginianmansikka
WILD SUNFLOWER Grindelia camporum Pihkarilpiö
WILD TEASEL Dipsacus fullonum Laidunkarstaohdake
WILD TURNIP Brassica rapa Nauris
WILD YAM Dioscorea villosa Villijamssi
WINGED BEAN, ASPARAGUS PEA Psophocarpus tetragonolobus Goanpapu, Goapapu
WINTER CHERRY, CHINESE LANTERN Physalis alkekengi Lyhtykoiso, Juutalaiskirsikka, Isolyhtykoiso
WINTERGREEN Gaultheria procumbens Lamosalali
WINTERS-BARK Drimys winteri Canelo
VIRGINIA-CREEPER, AMERICAN IVY Parthenocissus quinquefolia Imukärhivilliviini
WITCH HAZEL Hamamelis virginiana Amerikantaikapähkinä
WOLFBERRY Lycium chinense Kiinanpukinpensas
WOOD ANEMONE Anemone nemorosa Valkovuokko
WOOD BETONY Stachys officinalis Rohtopähkämö
WOOD ROSE Argyreia nervosa Ruusunorsukierto
WOOD SAGE Teucrium scorodonia Lehtoteurikka
WOOD SORREL Oxalis acetosella Ketunleipä, Käenkaali, Metsäkäenkaali
WOODRUFF Galium odoratum Tuoksumatara
WOOLY DIGITALIS, WOOLY FOXGLOVE Digitalis lanata Villasormustinkukka
WORMSEED Chenopodium ambrosioides Sitruunasavikka
WORMWOOD Artemisia absinthium Mali, Koiruoho
WOUNDWORT Stachys palustris Peltopähkämö
YARROW, MILFOIL Achillea millefolium Siankärsämö, Punakärsämö
YELLOW DOCK Rumex crispus Poimuhierakka
YELLOW LUPINE Lupinus luteus Keltalupiini
YELLOW SWEET CLOVER Melilotus officinalis Rohtomesikkä
YELLOW TOADFLAX, BUTTER AND EGGS Linaria vulgaris Kannusruoho, Keltakannusruoho
YEW Taxus sp. Marjakuuset
YOHIMBE Pausinystalia johimbe Johimbepuu
YUCCA Yucca spp. Jukat

Translation, editing and compilation: Veikko Pyhtilä, Lahti, Finland, 2020.

Sources: Liikuntaravitsemus, T. Vasankari and K. Uus-Rasi, VK-Kustannus Oy, 2006. Dr. Duke’s Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases, 2012. Several other sources.