Reflections on knowledge and its treatment from the perspective of problem solving
Problems can be dealt with in a multidisciplinary and networked manner as part of larger problems and entities as dependencies on other problems as a system of their causes, consequences, solutions, weights, and assessments. Develop a data structure, build reliable and sufficient data, make a visual presentation, and have a smart search system that is really challenging, time consuming and money consuming. In this case, it should have been possible to simulate the problem as a big system and to find the optimal solutions in a comprehensive way. Not that when one problem is eliminated, more are replaced. You need to see the reflection effects of the solutions. There are examples of this in nature, for example, a disease is the result of many different causes and can be cured, at least in part, by a combination of many different treatments and in many ways. As with environmental problems, there are many causes and their elimination requires combinations of many solutions.
When you start solving a problem, you first have to know everything you already know about it. Likewise, methods for solving the problem should be explored as well as what is being developed to solve the problem. Then, alone and in collaboration, you can refine and experiment with solutions and adapt to your destination.
Thorough investigation of the problem brings new problems to the fore. There is a lot of information, some of which is uncertain, unreliable, contradictory or differently tailored to cases. Some of the information is scientific, you must first be familiar with it a scientific area that you can read exhaustive information about it. Not everything is even known, but it must first be investigated. Not all information can be presented verbally and figuratively, but must be experienced and done. It will take a huge amount of time to thoroughly find out all the information about a problem in the world. Some information may be secret or commercial, so it is not easily accessible.
For example, I took up the issue of atherosclerosis, how much it requires a thorough explanation. Information can be found in medicine (general medicine, natural medicine), biology (systemic biology), biochemistry, provision of services (information sources, treatments, medicines, natural products, nutrition therapy, phytotherapy). If there was a centralized knowledgebase in the world with all the revised, reliable, valid information in one go, even with the mind map as the top interface, the search and access of information would be quick and more illustrative. Now I search online. Arterial Disease 5310 results in English pages. Arteriosclerosis 3,410,000 results and Atherosclerosis 12,100,000 results. Go through all of these – no time. Besides, not all information is on the website but in the books as well. In addition, there is tremendous amount of information on the subject in other search terms and in other languages. Here we see how big the problem is the flood of knowledge. If one were to know all that is known about a problem from its various solutions, it is impossible for man. Intelligent Search Robots and Artificial Intelligence are needed to help, which would only retrieve pieces of information only once, and would summarize and present the information in a structured, illustrative way. But artificial intelligence can’t do it without people’s help. And artificial intelligence have also been done by humans, and it requires constant development.
The information should be stored in a special developed language suitable for processing artificial intelligence, to which I have suggestions:
It would take a lot of people first to develop a good language into which all the relevant information is transferred. A new good artificial language could be developed that could also serve as a universal easy and accurate language. There are logic language and mathematical language and icons to mean certain things. Thus, the language could also have standardized icons and sign language, in part, as it already is today. There are languages that can be used to describe biological and chemical events, including computer systems: SBML
The problem with today’s natural languages is that the same word can mean different things in different contexts and the same thing is expressed in many different words. The nuances could be expressed by attributes. All words should have an agreement and a precise definition and definition of what it means and what it can be used for. There should be a lot of derived words about basic concepts. There are many derived words in the Finnish language and it is written almost as well as pronounced. Making the Finnish language regular for inflection and shortening the words could become a good basis for artificial intelligence and an easy world language. On the other hand, well-known English words can be chosen as basic concepts and vocabularies. One should think about which word would be the wisest to derive. And the current knowledge itself should first be parsed in one of the original languages, eg English or Finnish (native language). Because the meaning of the word today requires artificial intelligence to contextualise and put inflectional forms in, for example, language translation programs, it becomes unnecessarily demanding to program for artificial intelligence. When words are unambiguous and have many compound words and derivatives, this would facilitate the processing.
As such good language does not yet exist, I will make the following statement in Finnish and English. You only have to deal with one problem at a time, because there is no time for one person to thoroughly investigate all the world’s problems. A division of labor needs to be done. Some party, a group, takes a problem and explores the knowledge it needs and already has, and maintains and replenishes the knowledge as the world becomes aware of the subject.
Risk Factors: Smoking, increased levels of “bad” blood LDL cholesterol and hypertension. Low levels of “good” HDL cholesterol and increased triglyceride fats also increase the risk of fats in the blood. Others include adult-onset type 2 diabetes and obesity. Hereditary predisposition also plays a role. Higher levels of good cholesterol in the blood reduce the risk of the disease. The use of certain foods is associated with a lower risk of arterial disease. These include, in particular, fish, which are associated with low-fat fats, and the abundant use of vegetables and fruits. Regular exercise also reduces the risk of arterial disease.
When arterial constriction slows down blood flow, oxygen intake is reduced. As a result, there is a disturbance in the organ where the artery carries out the blood circulation. If the artery is partially obstructed, too little oxygen will cause pain in the area where the artery will circulate, during exercise. Usually the pain eases during rest. If the artery becomes completely clogged, it feels like a severe, persistent pain that you feel at rest. The result is tissue cell death, or necrosis in the blood vessel. Frequent blockage is often due to the formation of a blood clot in ruptured cholesterol plaque.
The sensitivity of the body’s arteries to disease varies. The most sensitive are the coronary arteries, which run on the surface of the heart muscle and supply blood to the heart muscle itself. Partial blockage causes chest pain, full blockage leads to myocardial infarction, resulting in necrosis of some of the myocardium. Arterial disease often also develops in the cerebral arteries, which clog up leads to a stroke. The narrowing of the arteries of the lower limbs causes intermittent walking and, in the worst case, when the artery becomes completely obstructed, the foot becomes necrotic.
Reducing hard (saturated) fat in food and increasing soft fat (unsaturated). The goal is to provide less than 10% of your daily energy from hard fat. Increasing the fiber content of food. The target is 25-35 grams per day. Enjoying fish food, a goal twice a week. Abundant use of fruits and vegetables. The target is 400 grams per day (potatoes not included). Reduce salt use.
Exercise: The minimum goal is at least 30 minutes of exercise most days of the week. More exercise is recommended. The intensity of the exercise should be such that you are slightly breathless.
Weight management: Keeping weight within normal limits, especially waist circumference (waist less than 100 cm for men and less than 90 cm for women). Weight loss and weight management if you have already developed obesity in the middle body, that is, waist sizes are higher than the figures.
By knowing and accurately describing each stage of the problem’s development and the effects of the solutions in different cases, the problem would be solved more confidently. It could be used to devise and develop new, better and more precise preventive and remedial measures and commodities. The problem is also related to other problems and the environment, the frame of reference that you also need to know. In this case, the problem should be treated as a system like in system biology. A scientific problem such as illness or environmental damage also occurs at the nanoscale, cellular and molecular levels. More difficult everyday problems could also be illustrated as systems by weight, for different parts at both macro and micro levels. Unemployment could be made a model that could be supplemented with reasons and solution ideas all the time. This kind of modeling could even be done with a spreadsheet program with estimates in different options. If the model were to bring together all the major influential factors and solutions it could do, it would be a good idea to simulate this major societal problem. But it is impossible for one person alone to do this because of the time, money and lack of information. Many things are perceived by the brain, but in this case, knowledge of the causes and solutions is left incomplete and inaccurate. On the other hand, models can also be built with incorrect and inadequate valid information, which can lead to misleading conclusions. Models should be tested in practice.
Thus, a large number of people and tools are needed to work together to identify the causes, consequences, solutions and assessments of problems. At present, it is satisfactory to have rough solutions, although they may not always work with 100% certainty.
At its simplest, there is only a well-organized concise list to search for:
- What are the problems and how they develop.
- The problem may be part of a larger problem, or the problem may cause other problems, or it may be subdivided into partial problems or sub-problems.
- The causes and risks that lead to problems.
- The same causes can lead to other problems.
- Solutions to problems and they can help to solve also other problems.
CAUSES, RISKS: Smoking. Too much LDL cholesterol. Too little HDL cholesterol. Too much triglyceride fats. Diabetes 2. Obesity. Genetic factors. Too little exercise. Poor diet.
PHASES: 1. Damage to endothelium (for example, due to high blood pressure or tobacco smoke). 2. Damage causes an inflammatory response. White blood cells are transported to the arterial wall and chemicals (cholesterol) accumulate in the blood. Atheroma develops. 3. The calcium salts and fibrous tissue form a hard swelling (plaque) whereby the artery loses some elasticity (hardens) and causes it to narrow. 4. Plaque makes it difficult for the heart to pump blood and leads to high blood pressure. Positive feedback as the blood pressure rises makes the addition of plaque more likely.
SOLUTIONS: Stop smoking. Less hard fat and soft fat to replace, lowering your energy intake also from carbohydrates. More fiber. Fish food 2 times a week. Plenty of fruits and vegetables. Less salt. More exercise. Weight management under control. Statin and aspirin medication. Stent or bypass surgery.
These summarized data can then be used to form a knowledge base into a comprehensive search and deduction program. The knowledge base can be supplemented with links for more information and commodities. It then forms a network of problems, their causes, their consequences and their solutions, and their dependencies. One can then ask, for example, what everything smoking, exercise, fruit and vegetable abundance, etc. affect.
Unemployment, Poverty, Illness, Old Age and Death Network of Causes and Consequences
You can translate the following sentences into positive, that is, No becomes Yes, so the end result becomes positive and death is replaced by life.
- No Education, No Self Study, No Practice > No Knowledge
- No Knowledge> Unemployment > No experience
- No Experience, No Education, No Knowledge > No Well-selling Skills > Unemployment, Cannot Start Business, No Labor
- The company has no workforce, The company has no valid workforce > The company cannot grow or employ more
- Too old or young in the labor market > Unemployment > Poverty
- No self-sufficiency > Poverty, No essential commodities
- No acquaintance support, No inheritance, New Helplessness > Poverty, No necessary commodities
- Poverty > No capital to start a business, Can’t afford to develop a business idea
- Poverty > Can’t Buy From Entrepreneurs > Entrepreneur Does Not Make Income> Entrepreneur Can’t Employ > State & Municipality Doesn’t Get Tax Income, Entrepreneur & State Can’t Buy From Others> Fewer Customers
- No Experience, No Education, No Knowledge, No Ideas > No Selling Business Idea > Customers Don’t Buy > No Business Income > Can’t Set Up Business > Poverty, Unemployment , Entrepreneur Cannot Develop Well > No Competitiveness> Company goes bankrupt > Unemployment, Poverty
- The entrepreneur loses income > The company goes bankrupt > Creditors lose their assets > Less capita l> The company cannot be raised
- Unemployment > State must pay aid, State and municipality do not receive tax revenue > Government debt increases > State can not pay aid, and does not employ or maintain health care > Poverty, Illness
- Don’t care about one’s condition > Illness
- Sickness> Unemployment > Poverty > State cannot pay support, Poor people can’t help > Can’t afford health care, food, housing > Death
- Old age, Illness > Death
- Entrepreneur good business idea > No customers because of poor people> Poverty
- Entrepreneur good business idea, no capital, no tools, no place, no agents, no collaborators > Unable to start a business > Unemployment, Poverty
- No one can afford to buy from anyone, No one can buy from anyone > Poverty, No one can afford to buy from anyone > No one has capital > No one can start a business > No one can employ > Unemployment
- No entrepreneurs, no employees > No commodities > Can’t buy even if money is available > No essential commodities > Death
- Everyone’s death > No unemployment, no poverty, no sickness, no debt, no customers, no businesses, no coffin or funeral.
- No true living faith and good conscience > Eternal death (man does not cease to exist but is eternal separation from God without the Holy Spirit), pain, sorrow
- HOW TO GET SINS FORGIVEN and keep faith and good conscience > Eternal life, joy, happiness, bliss
The model can be refined and completed with details to make it massive. For example, entrepreneur, employee, commodity, customer, etc. are parameters to which you can add more specific attributes (e.g., weights 1-100%, with attributes, IT unemployment 50% ), what industry, what profession, what and what commodity, foreign or domestic customer, etc. When the causes and effects come up with numerical values, they can be transferred to a spreadsheet for more accurate simulation.
With the same cause and effect principle, medical knowledge could be condensed into a knowledge base. It could include information, conditions, functions, and order of care when the causes of the illnesses were first identified and the illnesses identified on the basis of descriptions, symptoms, examinations.
- Causes of disease prevention and treatment.
- Symptoms and test results that could be diagnosed.
- The terms and conditions by which the principles can be managed and the order in which they must be maintained.
Computer programs, too, are composed of input data, processed in specified order in specified order, computed, sorted and repeated as needed, and then obtained results. Knowledge could be object-oriented, there are basic formulas that are adapted to each case by adding and deleting, and also several basic formulas can be combined and influenced by multiple models. The big problem is that, for example, medical information is partly indicative, not everything can be put into absolute facts. On the other hand, it is very spasmodic and case-by-case, each patient should be individually treated. The same is not the case for everyone.
Learning is well structured and condensed, and helps to memorize. When you modify knowledge for artificial intelligence, it can also become good learning material at the same time. Artificial intelligence can detect conflicts in knowledge with the help of logic. I studied medicine so I understood how complex it is to know the nature of knowledge. At the same time, I learn English, scientific vocabulary and get a picture of where we are going because I read quite new English-language books. As I grow older, I need more and more health information because health problems may become more common. Everyone should take more responsibility for their own health and that of their neighbors, based on valid information. Similarly, on environmental and social issues in general we all should also take responsibility.
Veikko J. Pyhtilä 2018